Posts Tagged education

Hurlbut-Walker Memorial Research Forum presentation on “The First Ladies of Education” [Charles Sumner School Museum and Archives, Thurs., August 16, 2018, 6:30pm]


Our last Hurlbut-Walker Memorial Research Forum for summer 2018 is on

Thursday, August 16 at 6:30pm. 

Join Dr. DeWitt S. Williams in a discussion about three African-American women who were among the first to earn a Ph.D. in the United States.

This event is Free and Open to the Public. 

A light reception will follow the dynamic discussion.

RSVP via phone: 202-730-0479  or email: info.sumnerschool@dc.gov

The Hurlbut-Walker Memorial Research Forum is an annual event that highlights the work developed by public researchers who have accessed the Sumner Museum Archives and honors the life and legacy of Richard Hurlbut and James Walker.

For more information about this series and the Sumner Museum, please e-mail us at info.sumnerschool@dc.gov

 

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Black Women in the World of Frederick Douglass — Dr. Georgiana R. Simpson (pt. 1)

As I walk in, out, around and through neighborhoods, communities and thoroughfares of Southeast Washington, knowingly or not, I re-trace routes Dr. Frederick (Bailey) Douglass trode walking his community as he built community.

Known throughout the four corners of the earth, Dr. Douglass was known and respected on the muddy street corners of old Barry Farm. The Douglass boys, specifically Charles and Frederick, Jr., commanded equal and independent respect as local community activists. Nothing changes but the weather; gun play exists today on the K, gun play existed on the streets and in backyards of old Barry Farm lots off Nichols Avenue.

Within the freedman community of Barry Farm the Douglass family invested themselves to uplift fallen humanity and assist families and their young children, many being the first born free, in education liberation.

The children of Old Barry Farm include Frederick Douglass Patterson, Garnet C. Wilkinson and Dr. Georgiana R. Simpson.

Dr. Georgiana R. Simpson was welcome in the home of not only Frederick Douglass but Frederick Douglass, Jr. who lived on Nichols Avenue, today Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue SE, until his death, before his time, in 1892.

Dr. Georgiana R. Simpson was a playmate with the grandchildren of Dr. Douglass.

Radical black women scholars and educators who ran with Dr. Douglass are legion.


 

We will no longer let historians whitewash this history. We will no longer allow historians tell “White Man Lies” on Dr. Douglass and the young women of African descent he looked out for, mentored and counseled.

I must admit I am complicit in allowing the lies of history, or rather an incomplete history, to be advanced. I played nice for years. I continue to play nice as that is my natural disposition, but I was granted permission by W Street Douglassonians to ratchet up the radical and guerrilla tactics in uplifting fallen humanity through history.

If Prof. Leigh Fought had stayed in her lane I may not have had impetus and mandate to come through the country roads and seek counsel of descendants of neighbors of Larkin Johnson and Emily Edmonson Johnson.

I was told to not forget the country roads from whence we come, the country roads of Zion, Brookeville, Gregg, Sundown, Goldmine, Brooke, Howard Chapel and Sunshine Burger.

We, guardians of the ground that raised us up, will not knowingly allow Ivory Tower academics to disgrace the community history of Dr. Frederick (Bailey) Douglass for one second longer.

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Dr. Frederick (Bailey) Douglass & Higher Education: University of Rochester Edition, Pt. 1 [Dr. Douglass details friendship with Prof. John H. Raymond, 2nd President of Vassar College]

John Raymond.jpg

John Henry Raymond, professor at the University of Rochester and 2nd President of Vassar College, was a radical friend of Dr. Douglass while he lived in Rochester.

Dr. Frederick Douglass pursued self-education and contributed to institutions of higher learning throughout his entire adult life. However, scholarship on Dr. Douglass and higher education has evaded the picklocks of Douglassonian biographers; it is hidden in plain sight, unknown from many of the institutions in the academy of letters and sciences which should rightfully acknowledge this secretive history.

Along with Coppin State University, which seems uninterested in the relationship the school’s namesake, Fanny Jackson Coppin, had with Dr. Douglass there are other colleges and universities equally dispassionate about doing the requisite research.

Recently, the University of Rochester appropriately honored the work of Mr. Kenneth B. Morris, Jr., a Douglass descendant, humanitarian, scholar and President of the Frederick Douglass Family Initiatives.

After making some inquiries I’ve caught some chatter the University of Rochester is planning to honor Dr. Douglass with an honorary degree or an equivalent honor in coming months.

I kindly advise University of Rochester NOT follow the same tone-deaf path Washington College took honoring Dr. Douglass and failing to address his longstanding relationship with higher education.

This is a polite word that for W Street Douglassonians it matters not Yale, Harvard, Maryland State Archives, Maryland Historical Society, Washington College or University of Rochester. The era of playtime honorifics for Dr. Douglass is over. Speak on it and let it be known for the entire world to know.

Frederick Augustus Washington (Bailey) Douglass is Professor Emeritus, the Master Educator of an entire Nation and local Tribe whose presence in the pages and chapters of this country’s history textbooks and manuscripts remains unwritten. From the afterlife his spirit speaks through his words studied in college curriculum from coast to coast.

Dr. Douglass was a fugitive slave-scholar who made his self-taught intellect known the world over before he was thirty years old. Thusly he parlayed and built with leading radical intellectuals and educators the world over the rest of his life.

Honor the work Dr. Douglass did at university as a scholar of the runaway slave.

Honor the Pharoah of American Letters.

Dr. Douglass and Prof. John H. Raymond

Dr. Douglass made his home in Rochester from 1847 until 1872. During this time he cultivated relationships with religious leaders, journalists, temperance advocates, businessmen, local politicians, the black community, suffragists and educators from the local public school system to the University of Rochester.

To my knowledge, no modern biography, book chapter, monograph or journal article has explored the details and specifics of Dr. Douglass and the University of Rochester.

Here’s to a start:

Washington City

October 18, 1880.

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John H. Raymond served as President of Vassar College from 1864 until his death in 1878.

I am glad to know that it is your purpose to publish the life and letters of your father, the late John H. Raymond. Unhappily for me, I have no letters of his which can be of service to you. I knew him well while he was a Professor in Rochester University. It was at a critical and trying time in the history of the struggle between freedom and slavery in our country. The fugitive-slave bill had just been enacted, making the whole North slave-hunting ground and every American citizen a slave-hunter, and had but lately become a law.

The effort to make that law respectable was immense. Press, pulpit, and official position all clamored for its enforcement. To speak and write against that law was to brand one’s self in public estimation as a law-breaker, and such a law-breaker I confess myself to have been both in theory and practice, for I assisted as many as I could in their escape from slavery, and no man in Rochester more than your father cheerfully gave me countenance and support in my efforts to secure a safe- conduct of the many fugitives from slavery who came through that city on their way to Canada. He freely gave his time, his influence, and his voice on the side of  humanity. No so-called law, interest, or logic could blind him to the stupendous wickedness of slavery, and he had the courage to be known and read of all men in that dark hour of our history as an inflexible friend to the cause of emancipation. Many have been the words of kindness and consolation which he addressed to me when the way seemed dark and difficult, and I retain a vivid recollection of his benevolent face and his amiable manners and bearing, though it is more than a quarter of a century since I saw him. . . .

Believe me sincerely yours,

Frederick Douglass.

SOURCE:

Will be shared when institutions of higher learning get as serious, believe you me, as I am about Dr. Douglass and higher education.

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Dr. Frederick Douglass reflects on Myrtilla Miner, radical white educator and founder of Normal School for Colored Girls which became District of Columbia Teachers College

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Myrtilla Miner, a radical educator.

His whole come up and until his last days Dr. Frederick Douglass ran with visionary radicals of all tribes, nationalities, ethnicities, genders and faiths.

A lesser-known revolutionary, who we feel most appropriate to recognize during Women’s History Month,  is none other than Myrtilla Miner, a local legend in the folklore of Old Washington City.

To keep it funky, Myrtilla Miner was counseled by Dr. Frederick Douglass to pump the brakes on her radical vision to establish a school in Washington City to educate “colored girls” in the early 1850s. Miner disregarded the advice and set up shop in Washington City, protecting her square until her death in 1864.

During his years as a Washingtonian Douglass could never pass Miner’s school without reflecting on its namesake.

While often attending events at the school and donating lecture proceeds, in 1883 Dr. Douglass shared his personal recollections of Miner.

Miner Teachers College - Washington, D.C..jpgYou have often urged me to tell you the little (and it is but little) I remember
of Miss Myrtilla Miner, the founder of what is now the Normal School for Colored Girls in the city of Washington. The task is, in every sense, an agreeable one.

If we owe it to the generations that go before us, and to those which come after us, to make some record of the good deeds we have with in our journey through life, and to perpetuate the memory and example of those who have in a signal manner made themselves serviceable to suffering humanity, we certainly should not forget the brave little woman who first invaded the city of Washington, to establish here a school for the education of a class long despised and neglected.

As I look back to the moral surroundings of the time and place when that school was begun, and the state of public sentiment which then existed in the North as well as in the South; when I remember how low the estimation in which colored people were then held, how little sympathy there was with any effort to dispel their ignorance, diminish their hardships, alleviate their suffering, or soften their misfortunes, I marvel all the more at the thought, the zeal, the faith, and the courage of Myrtilla Miner in daring to be the pioneer of such a movement for education here, in the District of Columbia, the very citadel of slavery, the place most zealously watched and guarded by the slave power, and where humane tendencies were most speedily detected and sternly opposed.

It is now more than thirty years (but such have been the changes wrought that it seems a century) since Miss Miner, in company with Joseph and Phebe Hathaway (brother and sister), called upon me at my printing-office in Rochester, New York, and found me at work, busily mailing my paper, the North Star.

It was my custom to continue my work, no matter who came, and hence I barely looked up to give them welcome, supposing the call to be an ordinary one, perhaps of sympathy with my work, or, more likely, an act of mere curiosity, and continued. I was not long permitted, however, to treat my callers in this unceremonious way. I soon found I was in a presence that demanded my whole attention. A slender, wiry, pale (not over healthy), but singularly animated figure was before me, and startled me with the announcement that she was then on her way to the city of Washington to establish a school for the education of colored girls.

I stopped mailing my paper at once,and gave attention to what was said. I was amazed, and looked to see if the lady was in earnest and meant what she said.

“The doubt in my mind was transient. I saw at a glance that the fire of a real enthusiasm lighted her eyes, and the true martyr spirit flamed in her soul. My feelings were those of mingled joy and sadness.

Here, I thought, is another enterprise, wild, dangerous, desperate, and impracticable, destined only to bring failure and suffering. Yet I was deeply moved with admiration by the heroic purpose of the delicate and fragile person who stood, or rather moved, to and fro before me, for she would not accept a chair.

She seemed too full of her enterprise to think of her own ease, and hence kept in motion all the time she was in my office. Mr. and Miss Hathaway remained silent. Miss Miner and myself did the talking. She advocated the feasibility of her enterprise, and I (timid and faithless) opposed in all earnestness. She said she knew the South; she had lived among slave-holders; she had even taught slaves to read in Mississippi; and she was not afraid of violence in the District of Columbia.

To me, the proposition was reckless, almost to the point of madness. In my fancy, I saw this fragile little woman harassed by the law, insulted in the street, a victim of slave holding malice, and, possibly, beaten down by the mob. The fate of Prudence Crandall in Connecticut and the then recent case of Mrs. Douglass at Norfolk were be fore me; also my own experience in at tempting to teach a Sunday-school in St. Michael’s; and I dreaded the experience which, I feared, awaited Miss Miner.

My argument made no impression upon the heroic spirit before me. Her resolution was taken, and was not to be shaken or changed.

The result, I need not say, has justified her determination.

I never pass by the Miner Normal School for Colored Girls in this city without a feeling of self-reproach that I could have said aught to quench the zeal, shake the faith, and quail the courage of the noble woman by whom it was founded, and whose name it bears.

Truly yours,
FREDERICK Douglass.

WASHINGTON, May 4, 1883.

SOURCE:

Myrtilla Miner: A Memoir (1885)

Bender, Kim. “Myrtilla Miner’s School for African American Girls,” C-SPAN, August 30, 2017,

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Educator Mrs. Fanny Jackson Coppin, namesake of Coppin State University in Baltimore, ran with industrial education advocate Dr. Frederick Douglass

In celebration of Women’s History Month we will make an effort to post weekly about reformist-minded women Dr. Frederick Douglass agitated and ran with in the circles of temperance, suffrage, journalism, education and other activist causes and purposes.

The first woman we feature is educator Mrs. Fanny Jackson Coppin, remembered today by the university on the west side of North Avenue in Baltimore which bears her name.

Whereas another day awaits a detailed account of the working relationship and friendship between Douglass and Coppin, here we share a brief excerpt from Coppin’s 1913 book with a brief anecdote detailing Douglass’ belief in industrial education as a means of economic self-determination.

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In the year 1837, the Friends of Philadelphia had established a school for the education of colored youth in higher learning. To make a test whether or not the Negro was capable of acquiring any considerable degree of education. For it was one of the strongest arguments in the defense of slavery, that the Negro was an inferior creation; formed by the Almighty for just the work he was doing.

It is said that John C. Calhoun made the remark, that if there could be found a Negro that could conjugate a Greek verb, he would give up all his preconceived ideas of the inferiority of the Negro. Well, let’s try him, and see, said the fair-minded Quaker people. And for years this institution, known as the Institute for Colored Youth, was visited by interested persons from different parts of the United States and Europe.

Here I was given the delightful task of teaching my own people, and how delighted I was to see them mastering Caesar, Virgil, Cicero, Horace and Xenophon’s Anabasis. We also taught New Testament Greek. It was customary to have public examinations once a year, and when the teachers were thru examining their classes, any interested person in the audience was requested to take it up, and ask questions. At one of such examinations, when I asked a titled Englishman to take the class and examine it, he said: “They are more capable of examining me, their proficiency is simply wonderful.”

One visiting friend was so pleased with the work of the students in the difficult metres in Horace that he afterwards sent me, as a present, the Horace which he used in college. A learned Friend from Germantown, coming into a class in Greek, the first aorist, passive and middle, being so neatly and correctly written at one board, while I, at the same time, was hearing a class recite, exclaimed: “Fanny, I find thee driving a coach and six.” As it is much more difficult to drive a coach and six, than a coach and one, I took it as a compliment. But I was especially glad to know that the students were doing their work so well as to justify Quakers in their fair-minded opinion of them.

General O. O. Howard, who was brought in at one time by one of the managers to hear an examination in Virgil, remarked that Negroes in trigonometry and the classics might well share in the triumphs of their brothers on the battlefield.

When I came to the School, the Principal of the Institute was Ebenezer D. Bassett, who for fourteen years had charge of the work. He was a graduate of the State Normal School of Connecticut, and was a man of unusual natural and acquired ability, and an accurate and ripe scholar; and, withal, a man of great modesty of character. Many are the reminiscences he used to give of the visits of interested persons to the school: among these was a man who had written a book to prove that the Negro was not a man. And, having heard of the wonderful achievements of this Negro school, he determined to come and see for himself what was being accomplished. He brought a friend with him, better versed in algebra than himself, and asked Mr. Bassett to bring out his highest class. There was in the class at that time Jesse Glasgow, a very black boy. All he asked was a chance. Just as fast as they gave the problems, Jesse put them on the board with the greatest ease. This decided the fate of the book, then in manuscript form, which, so far as we know, was never published. Jesse Glasgow afterwards found his way to the University of Edinburgh, Scotland.

In the year 1869, Mr. Bassett was appointed United States Minister to Hayti by President Grant; leaving the principalship of the Institute vacant. Now, Octavius V. Catto, a professor in the school, and myself, had an opportunity to keep the school up to the same degree of proficiency that it attained under its former Principal and to carry it forward as much as possible.

March 30 1876 _ FMJ to FD

Letter from Fanny Jackson to Frederick Douglass, 30 March 1876. Courtesy of LOC, Douglass Papers.

About this time we were visited by a delegation of school commissioners, seeking teachers for schools in Delaware, Maryland and New Jersey. These teachers were not required to know and teach the classics, but they were expected to come into an examination upon the English branches, and to have at their tongue’s end the solution of any abstruse problem in the three R’s which their examiners might be inclined to ask them. And now, it seemed best to give up the time spent in teaching Greek and devote it to the English studies.

As our young people were now about to find a ready field in teaching, it was thought well to introduce some text books on school management, and methods of teaching, and thoroughly prepare our students for normal work. At this time our faculty was increased by the addition of Richard T. Greener, a graduate of Harvard College, who took charge of the English Department, and Edward Bouchet, a graduate of Yale College, and also of the Sheffield Scientific School, who took charge of the scientific department. Both of these young men were admirably fitted for their work. And, with Octavius V. Catto in charge of the boys’ department, and myself in charge of the girls–in connection with the principalship of the school–we had a strong working force.

I now instituted a course in normal training, which at first consisted only of a review of English studies, with the theory of teaching, school management and methods. But the inadequacy of this course was so apparent that when it became necessary to reorganize the Preparatory Departments, it was decided to put this work into the hands of the normal students, who would thus have ample practice in teaching and governing under daily direction and correction. These students became so efficient in their work that they were sought for and engaged to teach long before they finished their course of study.

Richard Humphreys, the Friend–Quaker–who gave the first endowment with which to found the school, stipulated that it should not only teach higher literary studies, but that a Mechanical and Industrial Department, including Agriculture, should come within the scope of its work. The wisdom of this thoughtful and far-seeing founder has since been amply demonstrated.

At the Centennial Exhibition in 1876, the foreign exhibits of work done in trade schools opened the eyes of the directors of public education in America as to the great lack existing in our own system of education. If this deficiency was apparent as it related to the white youth of the country, it was far more so as it related to the colored.

In Philadelphia, the only place at the time where a colored boy could learn a trade, was in the House of Refuge, or the Penitentiary!

And now began an eager and intensely earnest crusade to supply this deficiency in the work of the Institute for Colored Youth.

The teachers of the Institute now vigorously applied their energies in collecting funds for the establishment of an Industrial Department, and in this work they had the encouragement of the managers of the school, who were as anxious as we that the greatly needed department should be established.

In instituting this department, a temporary organization was formed, with Mr. Theodore Starr as President, Miss Anna Hallowell as Treasurer, and myself as Field Agent.

Illustration

The Academic Department of the Institute had been so splendidly successful in proving that the Negro youth was equally capable as others in mastering a higher education, that no argument was necessary to establish its need, but the broad ground of education by which the masses must become self-supporting was, to me, a matter of painful anxiety.

Frederick Douglass once said, it was easier to get a colored boy into a lawyer’s office than into a blacksmith shop; and on account of the inflexibility of the Trades Unions, this condition of affairs still continues, making it necessary for us to have our own “blacksmith shop.”

The minds of our people had to be enlightened upon the necessity of industrial education.

SOURCE:

Jackson-Coppin, Fanny. Reminiscences of School Life, and Hints of Teaching. Philadelphia, PA. 1913.

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Allow me to reintroduce myself, Dr. Frederick Douglass receives Honorary Doctorate from Washington College

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Image courtesy of Kenneth B. Morris

“I had the honor of accepting a posthumous Honorary Doctor of Laws degree for Frederick Douglass from Washington College Friday night in Chestertown, MD. My ancestor was born into slavery about 30 miles from the school. His slave master was a benefactor to Washington in its early years. Douglass never spent one day of his life in a classroom because it was illegal for an enslaved person to get an education. He could not have attended this school in his lifetime. To commemorate the 200th anniversary of his birth, he received this long overdue recognition. We are proud to partner with Washington College on our One Million Abolitionists project.

Join me in congratulating, Dr. Douglass.” – Kenneth B. Morris 

“Allow me to reintroduce myself, Dr. Frederick Douglass …” – Tarence Bailey

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Excerpt of Frederick Douglass’ address to students at Western Reserve College, July 1854

Image result for frederick douglass reading“Colonization is out of the question, for I know not what hardships the laws of the land can impose, which will induce the colored citizen to leave his native soul. He was here in its infancy, he is here in its age. Two hundred years have passed over him, his tears and his blood have been mixed with the soil, and his attachment to the place of his birth is stronger than iron.”

Excerpt of Frederick Douglass’s address to student at Western Reserve College, July 1854.

SOURCE:

“AN EXTRACT,” Anti-Slavery Bugle, 5 August, 1854. Front Page.

 

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