Posts Tagged “Anna Douglass”
According to the standard and accepted lore in Douglassonian Studies, Frederick Douglass met Anna Murray, a free person of color, in Baltimore, Maryland in the 1830s. This telling has maintained in all known and existing works of scholarship.
A seminal fact may be missing, evading the preceding investigations of all amateur and lettered Douglass historians equally.
In a conversation a couple years back with a decades-long Douglass scholar it was discussed that Anna may have met Frederick while he was still under the care of his grandmother on the Tuckahoe. The memory of their childhood connections in the Maryland backroads and creeks were still strong in both Anna and Frederick when they then met again as adolescents in the city of Baltimore. To this fact, Anna’s lifelong bond to her husband, Frederick, was first forged in the Maryland countryside and helps explain the depths of her commitment to him over nearly forty-four years of marriage, the scholar suggested. The scholar is a long-time Douglass re-enactor. To here him to describe, in person as Douglass, the feeling he had upon seeing Anna, his childhood friend, in Baltimore and the accompanying overwhelming rapture of emotion was powerful.
“Wait, wait,” I said. “Where did you hear this story? Where is this from?”
Two sources, the scholar said. Back in the late 1980s or early 1990s, he toured Talbot County with some locals. They tromped through the old land holdings of Col. Edward Lloyd to locate the presumed birthplace of Douglass. While trekking through the brush, some locals shared with the scholar the long-known story that Frederick and Anna had met as children on this hallowed ground. His senior, Anna had babysat Frederick, the local legend holds. Struck by this, the scholar asked more questions and was benefited to further stories confirming that Frederick and Anna were well acquainted before meeting in Baltimore.
Anna Murray was the first of her parent’s children born free. Anna’s eldest daughter recalled her mother was from Denton in Caroline County, Maryland. Anecdotes and official documents have confirmed Anna’s genesis.
In Douglass’s 1855 bio he writes:
“The first experience of life with me that I now remember – and I remember it but hazily – began in the family of my grandmother and grandfather, Betsey and Isaac Baily. They were quite advanced in life, and had long lived on the spot where they then resided. They were considered old settlers in the neighborhood, and, from certain circumstances, I infer that my grandmother, especially, was held in high esteem, far higher than is lot of most colored persons in the slave states.
He also recalled his grandmother’s trade and travel. “She was a good nurse, and a capital hand at making nets for catching shad and herring; and these nets were in great demand, not only in Tuckahoe, but at Denton and Hillsboro, neighboring villages.”
Did young Frederick travel to Denton with his grandmother as she sold these nets? Would her grandmother’s patrons have included the Murray family?
According to James Monroe Gregory’s 1893 work, Frederick Douglass the Orator: Containing An Account of His Life, complete more than a decade after Anna had died, tells:
“His wife, Anna Murray, came originally from the Eastern Shore of Maryland, and lived for seven or eight years in Baltimore, where Mr. Douglass first met her. While she did not have the advantages of education in her childhood days, she was a woman of strong character, with much natural intelligence. As a housekeeper, she was a model, and the practical side of her nature made her a fitting helpmate to her husband in his early struggles and vicissitudes. In manner she was reserved, while he, as is well known, is of a jocose disposition.
She was the financier of the family. It was a settled principle with Mr. and Mrs. Douglass never to incur debts. If an addition was to be made to their home, or if they had under consideration any matter requiring the expenditure of money, they first counted the cost, and then made sure that the means were in hand before entering upon their plans.
In her death, which occurred in Washington in 1881, husband and children suffered a great loss and a severe trial, for she was a good mother and a faithful wife.”
In the primary document historians have used to mine information about Anna Murray, Rosetta Douglass’s 1900 address to the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, the telling of Anna meeting Frederick in Baltimore holds true.
“Anna Murray was born in Denton, Caroline County, Maryland, an adjoining county to that in which my father was born. The exact date of her birth is not known. Her parents, Bambarra Murray and Mary, his wife, were slaves, their family consisting of twelve children, seven of whom were born ill slavery and five born in freedom. My mother, the eighth child, escaped by the short period of one month, the fate of her older brothers and sisters, and was the first free child.
Remaining with her parents until she was seventeen, she felt it time that she should be entirely self-supporting and with that idea she left her country home and went to Baltimore, sought employment in a French family by the name of Montell whom she served two years. Doubtless it was while with them she gained her first idea as to household management which served her so well in after years and which gained for her the reputation of a thorough and competent housekeeper.
On leaving the Montells’, she served in a family by the name of Wells living on S. Caroline Street. Wells* was Post-master at the time of my father’s escape from slavery. It interested me very much in one of my recent visits to Baltimore, to go to that house accompanied by an old friend of my parents of those early days, who as a free woman was enabled with others to make my father’s life easier while he was a slave in that city. This house is owned now by a colored man. In going through the house I endeavored to remember its appointments, so frequently spoken of by my mother, for she had lived with this family seven years and an attachment sprang up between her and the members of that household, the memory of which gave her pleasure to recall.
The free people of Baltimore had their own circles from which the slaves were excluded. The ruling of them out of their society resulted more from the desire of the slaveholder than from any great wish of the free people themselves. If a slave would dare to hazard all danger and enter among the free people he would be received. To such a little circle of free people-a circle a little more exclusive than others, Frederick Baily was welcomed. Anna Murray, to whom he had given his heart, sympathized with him and she devoted all her energies to assist him. The three weeks prior to the escape were busy and anxious weeks for Anna Murray. She had lived with the Wells family so long and having been able to save the greater part of her earnings was willing to share with the man she loved that he might gain the freedom he yearned to possess. Her courage, her sympathy at the start was the mainspring that supported the career of Frederick Douglass. As is the condition of most wives her identity became so merged with that of her husband, that few of their earlier friends in the North really knew and appreciated the full value of the woman who presided over the Douglass home for forty-four years.”
[* In the 1837 Baltimore City Directory Peter Wells of “69 Caroline st.” is identified as a “letter carrier.”]
If Douglass and Anna knew each other before their mutual time in 1830s Baltimore, wouldn’t their eldest and outspoken daughter know and retell this key article of import? Why doesn’t Frederick Douglass mention Howard University in Life and Times? In the field of Douglass studies these questions, among many others, have not thoroughly studied.
Wait, what about Young Frederick Douglass: The Maryland Years, one of the most thorough and original Douglass biographies yet published? What does Dickson J. Preston write?
On page 149, Preston writes that Frederick met Anna in Baltimore, citing Rosetta’s claim.
Case closed? What if all of these previous works, for more than one hundred years, have obscured and overlooked one vital source?
Though not a man of the cloth, Frederick Douglass was frequently addressed as Reverend. He was a disciple of Charles Lawson. His earliest public orations were in the church. He knew the leading theologians of his day, of all denominations – both of European and African descent. (Douglass’s relationship with the church and its leaders is another subject severely understudied.)
A prominent theologian of Douglass’s day, who has been lesser remembered by history, was Bishop Alexander Walker Wayman. Wayman, like Anna, was born free, in Tuckahoe Neck, Caroline County, Maryland in 1821. Wayman and Anna knew each other as children. In adulthood, Wayman and Douglass attended events and camp meetings together. In January and April 1894, Wayman wrote a letter to Douglass addressing him as “My Dear Old Friend.”
How long did Wayman and Douglass know each other?
In 1881 Wayman wrote an autobiography. In the first pages he reveals a clue as to the origins of Frederick and Anna.
“The first A. M. E. Minister, that I heard of, who visited the Eastern Shore of Maryland, was Rev. Shadrack Bassett. He came over from Baltimore and went to the town of Easton, in Talbot County, and preached under some trees, selecting for his pulpit a cart. He read for his opening hymn, “Oh! tell me no more of this world’s vain store.”
And when he came to that verse:
“To dwell I’m determined on that happy ground,” he pointed in a certain direction. The people thought that he intended to say, there was the place for him to build his Church. And upon that very spot the first A. M. E. Church of that region was built.
From Easton Rev. Shadrack Bassett passed up to Caroline County, and stopped at my father’s house. Learning that there was a certain local preacher by the name of Samuel Todd, living in another part of the County, and if he could get him (Todd) to join his Church, he would have a strong man, my father gave him the direction where to find him. Mr. Bassett started, and after walking some miles he reached Todd’s house, and inquired for him. His wife suspected what Mr. Bassett wanted with her husband. She reluctantly told him he was out in the field ploughing, and he moved off in that direction. When he drew near to Mr. Todd, he said, “Turn out those oxen;” and by the time he was up to where Mr. Todd was the oxen were unharnessed, and he was ready to go to the house.
Samuel Todd then and there agreed to unite with the African M. E. Church. He subsequently filled Baltimore City station, Washington, D. C., and New York. When stationed in Baltimore City, on one New Year’s Eve, while singing “My soul would leave this heavy clay, At that transporting word,”
I heard the late Rev. Robert Collins, of Philadelphia, say he was converted.
In the autumn of 1837 he died in Philadelphia. My father was on a visit to that city at the time, and when he returned home was speaking of being present at the funeral of his old friend and brother, Rev. Samuel Todd. How long Rev. Shadrack Bassett remained in that part of Maryland I have no means of knowing.
The next minister that I recollect hearing them speak of was Rev. J. G. Bulaugh. How long he remained there I do not know. The first minister that I recollect seeing was Rev. William Richardson. He was very kind to children, and therefore they all loved him. During his stay he held a camp-meeting at a place called Dick’s Old Field. Miss Anna Murray, now Mrs. Frederick Douglass, came and kept house for my mother while she was attending this camp-meeting.
There was one thing about this meeting that was very disagreeable, as I heard those who were there speaking of it. Several attempts were made to kidnap colored men; one man was seized by them, but he cut his way out.
This must have been about 1824 or 1825; for I recollect hearing the old people speaking about persons going to Hayti. There occurred one circumstance that makes me think it was about that date. A white man named George Calahan owned a slave who was called Moses. On account of bad treatment he ran away and went to the free country. After he was gone some time a colored woman went to Philadelphia, and when she returned home, Bamberry Murray, Mrs. Frederick Douglass’ father, told Mr. Calahan that this woman was just from Philadelphia, and perhaps she had seen Moses. He made haste and rode up to her house and called to her, and said, “I hear you have been to Philadelphia?” She answered, “Yes, sir.” Then she said, “I had a boy by the name of Moses, that went away for no cause.”
This excerpt is not as revealing as one might hope but it does establish, firmly, that Anna Murray and Frederick Bailey were both in Talbot County at the same time in the early / mid 1820s. So, what does this mean?
(To be continued…)
Helen Pitts Douglass was no simpleton; she could handle a lunatic who knocked on her door with ease [Wash Post, Jan. 27, 1889]
Historic memory has been rather unfair to the wives of Frederick Douglass. Simply told, Douglass’ first wife couldn’t read and his second wife was “second-rate.” These attitudes still exist to this day, just ask the Park Rangers at the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site (FDNHS) who field questions from the general public seven days a week. The forthcoming work of Dr. Leigh Fought should help to eviscerate these fallacies which have held the minds of both the general public and insular academics for decades.
One of the more interesting items I discovered going through thousands of newspaper stories was this one from January 1889 which ran in the Washington Post. The text speaks for itself and I have been told by staff at the FDNHS that this story has helped calm the nerves of some visitors who rush to uninformed judgments about Douglass’ second wife, Helen Pitts.
“At 9 o’clock yesterday morning John Anderson, a colored man living on the Flats in Hillsdale, and who has been acting in a peculiar manner for several days, became violently insane and rushing from his house ran down Nichols avenue, yelling, gesticulating and scattering pedestrians right and left. Turning up Jefferson street, he ran to the house of Fred Douglas and rang the bell. Pushing his way past the frightened servant girl, he confronted Mrs. Douglass and at once proposed to offer prayer. Mrs. Douglass, who was alone, took in the situation, and tried to quiet John, but suddenly he rushed into the dining-room and entered a closet. Mrs. Douglass quickly shut the door and locked it keeping the lunatic a prisoner until Officer W. T. Anderson came and took him in custody. John is a carpenter by trade, and has been subject to temporary attacks of insanity for some time, but was always considered harmless. He was sent to the police surgeon’s for examination and will probably be committed to the asylum.”
Talk on Anna Murray Douglass this Saturday, July 21st, 2pm at the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site
Come out this Saturday, July 21st for a lively talk and Q & A session on Frederick Douglass and his wife Anna Murray by Dr. Leigh Fought at the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site at 1411 W Street SE (Metro – Anacostia on the Green Line / Bus – B2, U2, 90s) from 2pm – 3pm. Dr. Fought is currently writing a book on Frederick Douglass and women, to be published by Oxford University Press in late 2013.
Beginning this fall, Dr. Fought will be a professor at Le Moyne College. Previously, she spent four years at Montgomery College in Takoma Park and served an associate editor on the first volume of Frederick Douglass’s correspondence (Yale University Press, 2009). Her publications include “Southern Womanhood and Slavery: A Biography of Louisa S. McCord” (University of Missouri Press, 2003) and “Mystic, Connecticut: From Pequot Village to Tourist Town” (History Press, 2007).
You can check out her current project on her blog, “Frederick Douglass’s Women: In Progress” at www.leighfought.blogspot.com
Did Frederick Douglass buy “The New Era” from colored newspaper boy? Front page of “The New Era” [Thursday, January 13, 1870]
For black newspaper boys holding their street corners throughout downtown Washington, on Thursday January 13, 1870 there was a new paper to hawk, a paper uniquely speaking to their emerging place in the country and city, “The New Era.”
We forget Frederick Douglass came up in the streets of 1830’s Baltimore; he was always for the youngster on the make. From students at Howard University invited into his home(s) in the city to adolescent runaways in Rochester that Anna and Frederick helped shuttle to Canada, Douglass was ALWAYS there for the youngsters. His attitude was not I got mine, so get yours. Douglass’ attitude and message was I got mine this way, you can get yours this same way or other ways, but you CAN get it if you work hard, work hard, and don’t stop working hard and while working hard you believe in yourself. And at least one person believes in you, I do.
Frederick Douglass could break it down, he’d been there before and never forgot.I’ve heard through the grapevine of an account of a black newspaper boy seeing Frederick Douglass one morning on Pennsylvania Avenue and running up to him to talk — and sell a paper! When I first heard this I thought Douglass surely would have cut an image on the Avenue. The story goes that Douglass not only spoke to the young man, asking him questions about who he was and what he wanted to be, but that he gave him a “large tip” in life advice and a couple extra dollars. With my research approaching the stop sign as I’m weaving the chapters together I probably won’t have time to pursue this but I have two solid leads on where this account might be — if it does exist. This is another post I will have to update when I either confirm or reject this account.
Intrigue and speculation often times leads nowhere but this account from what I know of Douglass rings true.
A couple days ago I posted a clipping from the Baltimore Sun indicating Anna Murray Douglass was buried in Graceland Cemetery within days of her death on August 4, 1882. I then called the clerk of Mount Hope Cemetery who told me their records indicate Anna Murray Douglass was buried there in 1882, but didn’t have the exact date of her internment. Fair enough.
A friend and a reader have since sent an article I’d overlooked from February 22, 1895 revealing that upon Frederick’s death in Washington in February 1895, his children intended to “disinter” Anna, who was still buried in DC, now at Glenwood Cemetery (as Graceland Cemetery closed in July 1894), and move her to Rochester to rest alongside Frederick, and their youngest daughter, Annie.
I called over to Glenwood Cemetery on Lincoln Road NE and spoke with Walter, the superintendent. I explained all the background and said I was trying to get to the bottom of this mystery. Ever gracious Walter gave a thorough once-over through the card files and internment book from 1894 until 1896. This would have covered Anna’s possible move from Graceland and/or her disinterment, right Well, Walter didn’t see anything but extended the invitation to come over and check the books out in person, if I’d like.
What I find interesting is, that if Anna Murray Douglass was moved from Graceland to Glenwood, she was moved to what Richardson calls one of the city’s “big five” white cemeteries of the last nineteenth/early 20th century. Those five being, Oak Hill, Rock Creek, Congressional, Glenwood, and Mount Olivet, which was a biracial burial ground. The “big five” of Washington’s black cemeteries of this time, Richardson writes, were Harmony, Payne’s (east of the river), Mount Olivet, Mount Zion, and Mount Pleasant.
Now, back to Mount Hope. The New York Times clipping must be read with a certain level of critical perspicacity. At the time of Frederick’s death in 1895, Rosetta, his oldest daughter, was alive, but his youngest daughter Annie, had been dead for thirty-five years. So, only one of Douglass’ daughters was buried in Rochester, not two.
Calling Mount Hope I spoke with Lydia Sanchez, a clerk at Mount Hope Cemetery which is run by the city of Rochester. I explained Lydia my quandary. Once again, Lydia confirmed that according to Mount Hope’s records Anna Murray Douglass was buried in 1882. It wasn’t until 1888 that datebooks of burials were kept.
With this info, is it correct to say that if Anna Murray Douglass was buried in Mount Hope in late February or early March 1895 alongside her husband of 44 years there would be an exact date. I have a whole collection of newspaper accounts of Douglass’s funeral service in DC and Rochester and his subsequent burial in Rochester that I can examine as well as letters. This is not something I had expected to find, but it’s been found nonetheless.
Foner, Quarles, and McFeely don’t really get into detail about Anna’s death and burial. Deadrich in Love Across Color Lines does go there, stating that Anna was brought to Rochester and buried there right after her death. Her citation does nothing to prove her claim. While Douglass’ other biographers didn’t step up to bat on this one, Diedrich did. But she struck out.
My main man, Frederic May Holland, and his blasphemously ignored work 19th century work on Douglass, may come the closest to to giving some valuable clues to solving his mystery.
Will look into this further and get up another post. To be continued….
Death knocked on the door of the Frederick Douglass family too often, Douglass outlives his wife, two children, and numerous grand-children
Death knocked at the door of the family of Frederick Douglass all too frequently. When a parent buries a child the natural evolutionary order of life is upset. Frederick Douglass buried two of his children. Just nine of Douglass’ twenty-one grandchildren lived to adulthood.
When his youngest daughter Annie died in March 1860, less than two weeks short of her 11th birthday, Douglass was in Glasgow, Scotland, having fled the country after he was implicated in John Brown’s failed raid of the Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry in November 1859.
Anna Murray Douglass passed away on August 4, 1882 and nearly ten years later, as a heat wave swept through the city, on July 26, 1892 Douglass’ middle son and namesake, Frederick, Jr. died. He was fifty years old.
From the National Tribune, August 4th, 1892,
Tuesday, July 26. – Frederick Douglass, jr., a son of the noted colored man of that name died at Hillsdale, a Washington suburb, today. Mr. Douglass was for some time employed in the office of Recorder of Deeds in the District of Columbia, having gone there while his father was the Recorder, but for the past five years has been a clerk in the Pension Bureau.
And from the Washington Post, November 5, 1887
Charles R. Douglass, son of Frederick Douglass, is at present sadly afflicted in the loss of his two elder children, Chas. F. and Julia A. Douglass, of typhoid fever. The disease was first taken by the son about five weeks ago and by the daughter about two weeks ago, since which time the three other children have been attacked and one of them is now lying at the point of death. Charles was about twenty years of age and the daughter about fifteen. The son’s death took place Wednesday night and the daughter’s the following night. The two bodies will be interred at Greenwood this afternoon.”
If Anna Murray Douglass was buried in DC’s Graceland Cemetery then how and why did she end up in Mount Hope Cemetery in Rochester?
In life Anna Murray Douglass, the wife of Frederick Douglass for 44 years and mother to their five children, is largely a mystery to historians. In death, she’s still a mystery.
According to her Certificate of Death from August 1882, the 69-year old Anna Murray Douglass, originally of Denton, in Caroline County, Maryland died August 4th of “Paralysis – Hemiplegia.” By care of an undertaker from Anacostia, she he was buried in Graceland Cemetery on August 6th, 1882.
According to the Baltimore Sun‘s “Washington Letter” from August 8, 1882, “The funeral of Mrs. Frederick Douglass yesterday was attended by a large concourse of both white and colored, on foot and in carriages. The funeral procession, a long one, carried the remains to Grace Cemetery, where she was laid to rest by Hon. B.K. Bruce, John F. Cook, Jas. Wormley, Dr. Green, B.D. Woods, and Robert Parker, the pall-bearers.”
In “The Burial Grounds of Black Washington: 1880-1919” published in Vol. 52 of the Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Steven J. Richardson writes, “The only predominately black cemetery that interred a significant number of whites was Graceland Cemetery, established in 1872. Located just south of Mount Olivet on Bladensburg Road, just beyond the Florida Street boundary, N.E., Graceland was a popular biracial cemetery during its brief existence.”
Between 1880 and 1894, Graceland buried 4,722 black Washingtonians and 1,073 white Washingtonians. In 1890 and 1891, Graceland was the final resting place for more blacks than any other cemetery in the city.
Its popularity notwithstanding, with development encroaching and its location on “marshy land,” Graceland closed on July 23, 1894. Many were reinterred at the recently opened Woodlawn Cemetery, on Benning Road NE. (The final resting place for Blanche K. Bruce, John Mercer Langston, and other men and women of local and national prominence.)
So, that means Anna Murray Douglass is buried in Woodland Cemetery and cared for and watched over by the retired United States Marine Tyrone F. General and his corps of volunteers and patriots that are saving Woodlawn, right? No. Today Anna Murray Douglass is buried at Mount Hope Cemetery in Rochester, New York alongside her husband, Frederick Douglass. Helen Pitts Douglass, the second wide of Frederick Douglass, is also buried in Mount Hope.
I spoke with the clerk of Mount Hope who confirmed that, according to their records, Anna Murray Douglass was buried in Mount Hope in 1882. Unfortunately, there was is no record of the exact date of Anna’s internment, as there is for Helen (12/9/1903).
“That’s quite common for that period,” I was told.
So there it is. Another mystery. I’d imagine there are Rochester and other upstate New York newspaper accounts of Anna’s burial (re-burial) at Mount Hope and I might be able to dig up something in the LOC’s FD papers but more than likely I won’t able to solve this before the final deadline.
But I think it’s fair to say two things about Anna Murray Douglass, 1) Without Anna Murray Douglass the world might never have known Frederick Douglass and 2) At one point Anna Murray Douglass was buried in Washington, DC.