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Frederick Douglass mistaken for Horace Greeley on the streets of Louisville, Kentucky

On several occasions across different states, cities, towns, time zones, hemispheres and decades Frederick (Bailey) Douglass was a victim of mistaken identity. We recently came across a story we’d never heard before — Douglass being mistaken for the esteemed, and deceased, newspaper publisher and failed presidential candidate Horace Greeley.

Horace Greeley History - Item # VAREVCP4DHOGREC001 - Posterazzi

Do you see a resemblance? Reportedly some folks in Louisville apparently did …


Frederick Douglass recently paid a visit to the Louisville, Kentucky. The Planet, speaking of his visit, gets off the following:

THE DEAD ALIVE.

During the visit of Frederick Douglass in our midst, while he chanced to be walking up Market Street, he passed a crowd of boot-blacks and his peculiar appearance so attracted their attention that one looking up into the face of the venerable man gave vent to the following exclamation, “J-e-s-u-s C-h-r-i-s-t; H-o-r-a-c-e G-r-e-e-l-e-y.”


EDITOR’S NOTE:

We share our historic footnotes when coins are forthcoming.

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Lost History: Frederick Douglass, “I belong to the Human Catholic church.” Says Saint Augustine Catholic Church in Washington, D.C. “is the colored people’s pride.”

Before and after his self-liberation from enslavement, Frederick (Bailey) Douglass was closely connected with the Black Church, Black American clergy and community outreach traditions from petitioning local governments to the organizing of evening Bible study classes and Sabbath schools to multi-day camp meetings.

Although affiliated with the Methodists, the white Methodist Episcopal church and the African Methodist Episcopal and African Methodist Episcopal Zion denominations, through his early life from bondsman to freedman Douglass was an ecumenical reformist. As an abolitionist and Civil Rights advocate Douglass worked with radical white and Black Adventists, Baptists, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Methodists, Presbyterians, Quakers and Unitarians, among others within the umbrella of Christianity.

In a limited analysis of Douglass within the context of the Black church, or rather Douglass within the tradition of 19th century American religion, is his awareness and connections with the Catholic Church across generations and geography.

Escaping enslavement from Baltimore in 1838, Douglass spent a significant part of his early life in the genesis city of Black Catholicism in America. It was in Douglass’ Fell’s Point neighborhood that Sister Mother Mary Lange first started her school in the late 1820s. It was in the Colombian Orator in which Douglass reportedly met “one of Sheridan‘s mighty speeches on the subject of Catholic Emancipation.” While in Ireland in the mid-1840s, Douglass met and shared the stage with Daniel O’Connell, the noted champion of Catholic emancipation in Great Britain.

Working as an activist and reformist across the prevailing faiths and denominations of Western religions for decades, the discussion of Douglass and Catholicism has long evaded scholastic investigation and interpretation.

In the spring of 1894 John Hanson Beadle visited Cedar Hill, the home of Frederick Douglass, in a larger effort to chronicle the complexities and idiosyncrasies of Washington, D.C.’s unique Black communal life.

During Beadle’s interview Douglass shared insights into his relationships with local churches and clergy in Washington. Specifically, Douglass spoke to Beadle about Saint Augustine Catholic Church in D.C., the tradition of Black Catholicism within his native state of Maryland and its impact within Black communities throughout the country.

This interview and quotes from Frederick Douglass on Black Catholicism have not appeared since their original publication more than 100 years ago. All previous known biographical and monographic works of scholarship on Douglass, especially efforts to discuss Douglass with the faith traditions of the Black Church


Negro church - St. Augustine Catholic Church, Washington, D.C.
St. Augustine Catholic Church, Washington, D.C. (1899?), reportedly displayed as part of the American Negro exhibit at the Paris Exposition of 1900. Library of Congress

I found Hon. Frederick Douglass at his beautiful home on the hills east of Anacostia, a site overlooking all the city, nearly all the District and many miles of both branches of the Potomac. It is a typical east Maryland home, with broad halls, well surrounded by trees and showing in every detail of the surroundings a natural love for country life. As we walked about the grounds in front, the little strip called Anacostia was scarcely visible at the foot of the hill. Beyond it the sluggish waters of the eastern branch of the Potomac seemed scarcely moving in the May sunshine. Beyond that the beautiful city stretched northward and westward till it faded away in the timbered heights about Georgetown and on the upper Potomac. Of course Coxey’s army and its related movements formed the first topic of conversation, but in that curious way by which one thing bring on another in conversation till the subject is entirely changed we were soon deep in a discussion of the various religions of mankind.

“I belong,” said Mr. Douglass, “to the Human Catholic church. I usually attend the Methodist church, but for many a year I have not been able to bind down my mind to any of those creeds which as it seems to me, make statements that the ordinary common sense contradicts.

“I have traveled about some and have everywhere seen men doing all sorts of things to get on the good side of God, if happily they might induce him to change his laws for their benefit. So far as my reading goes, I find that men have been doing that through all time, but I am satisfied that the law is invariable. All we can do is to find what it is and obey it.”

Colored Roman Catholics

“But is there not a great feeling of loss and some anxiety when a man concludes that he is simply the subject of an unchanging law?”

An 1892 newspaper print of Saint Augustine Catholic Church on 15th Street NW, Washington, D.C. In an 1894 interview Frederick Douglass called St. Augustine “the colored people’s pride.”

“There is not to me. I am completely at rest on that point. I am within the trade winds of the Almighty. I know that the moral and social and intellectual laws are just as invariable as the physical, and the violation of them will bring what people call punishment – that is the suffering from violated law. I have seen the country thoroughly scourged, and I know it will be scourged again until it does justice, for the law is imperative. But if you want to know about our people’s religious condition I refer you to Dr. Jennifer of Metropolitan, which I usually attend, or Dr. John H. Brooks of the Nineteenth Street Baptist church, for here, as in most places through the South, I believe, the Baptists are most numerous among us.

We have a great many fine people in the Catholic church, and there are probably 10,000 colored Catholics in the District. In fact, Baltimore, Washington and New Orleans contain more colored Catholics than all the other cities in the country.”

“The colored man, you know, is just like any other man when he starts in religion” – this with a short laugh – “he takes the first that is offered him, and all this region, all Maryland, in fact, was Catholic at the start. It is perfectly delightful to go to that St. Augustine Catholic church and see the perfect freedom which prevails between white and colored. It is so in all the Catholic churches of the District, but St. Augustine is the colored people’s pride. The Catholics set a very fine example to the Protestant brethren in that respect.”


The discovery of this archival text, indicating that the Honorable Frederick (Bailey) Douglass was a frequent attendant at my familial place of worship brought about a deluge of memories. 

I grew up taking in sermon and the rites of the Eucharist at St Augustine Parish.

Admittedly, however, I have not seen the inside of this legacy temple for a long while now. It was in reading Douglass’ depictions of the community of Black Catholics in D.C. that I’m taken back to Sunday mass with memories of ascending the steps into the church’s foyer where a fountain flows into a stone basin. I’m unable to pull together the image in the design of the statue that takes shapes as the fountain, but I can recall the ritual that my grandmother or mother, or which ever aunt in closest proximity at the time, would anoint my brow with its sacrament; holy water in the sign of the cross. 

There’s something about the Black Church that brings about equilibrium, a normalizing of oneself against the opposing forces that await you in America.      

St Augustine Parish provided that and more. Entering the doors into the main hall, under the vaulted ceiling, you are flanked by stained glass depictions of a highly melanated Saint Augustine of Hippo and inlaid relief sculptures of apostolic characters adorning afro hairstyles. We worshipped in our likeness.

I don’t know what Frederick Douglass witnessed while taking in sermon in that 19th century church. I doubt that the ornamentation would’ve been that observably Black, but I am of mind to presume that my experience was undoubtedly the product of a uniquely Black attitude of self-reliance and conspicuous religiosity.


John Muller, author of Frederick Douglass in Washington, D.C.: The Lion of Anacostia (2012), is co-founder of Lost History Associates, with Justin McNeil. McNeil attended Saint Augustine Catholic School in Washington, D.C., and Morehouse College in Atlanta. In February 2021 Muller & McNeil contributed an editorial, “The Lost History of Frederick Douglass and the Black Church,” to the Washington Informer.

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Frederick Douglass Historic Panel Unveiling in Baltimore City -> Saturday, June 19, 2021 @ 11:00 AM


On Saturday, June 19, 2021 (Juneteenth), the Canton Community Association, in partnership with the Baltimore National Heritage Area and the Friends of President Street Station, will unveil a set of historic panels commemorating Frederick Douglass’ escape from slavery in 1838. Join us at 11:00 a.m. at 2809 Boston Street in Canton, the site of the former depot where Frederick Bailey – later known as Frederick Douglass – boarded a train to freedom in the north.

Douglass, who made his escape dressed as a sailor, kept this story to himself until he published his third autobiography in 1881. Although Douglass’ account leaves out many logistical details, (including the location of the station), recent research of contemporary documents completed by Dr. Raymond Bahr, citizen historian and founder of the Canton History Project, points to the location of a long-lost railroad depot on Boston Street (in front of what is now Tindeco Wharf Apartments).

“I heard the theory (from anecdotal sources) that Frederick Bailey, then enslaved in the shipyards of Fell’s Point, probably escaped on a train leaving a station on Boston Street in Canton. So, with the help of colleagues, I dug into contemporary maps, news articles, reports of the Canton Company, and the lore of local railroad historians to fill in a more complete picture of the preconditions young Frederick faced and what decisions he made when planning his escape. We were very excited to discover that such a pivotal moment in history occurred in our neighborhood.” – Dr. Raymond Bahr.

Following his escape from Baltimore, Douglass continued to battle against slavery, oppression, and inequality throughout American society. Today, Douglass is recognized as the most historically consequential American raised in Maryland. His writings about race relations, human liberty, and political power are painfully relevant and consistently impactful.

The dedication program will include remarks by:


Raymond Bahr, Historian, Canton History Project & Alliance History Committee
Bradley Alston, Baltimore City Historical Society Board Member and Urban Ranger
Shauntee Daniels, Director, Baltimore National Heritage Area
Zeke Cohen, Councilmember, Baltimore City District 1
Mark Edelson, President, Canton Community Association
Young Scholars (Schools TBA)

Funding for this project was provided by The Baltimore National Heritage Area via the Heritage Investment Grant (HIG).

Facebook link here!

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VIDEO – Downtown St. Augustine, Florida – Frederick Douglass plaque (1889)


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VIDEO: History of Dennis F. Groce of Caroline County & Howard University – ABC 47 Good Morning Delmarva


Link to 47 ABC‘s “The Bright Side” -> History of Dennis F. Groce

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ABC 47 feature on Dennis F. Groce, first graduate of Howard University from Caroline County, debuts this evening @ 6:15 PM (EST), stream online links (May 25, 2021)

Lost History of Caroline County's First Graduate of Howard University” @  Greensboro Historical Society; Friday, April 9, 2021; 6:30 PM – 8:00 PM |  Frederick Douglass in Washington, D.C.: The Lion of Anacostia

Our gratitude to Deanna Harley of ABC 47 for taking time to recognize and feature the lost history of Dennis F. Groce of Greensboro, Maryland as the first graduate of Howard University from Caroline County on Maryland’s Eastern Shore.

Special thanks to Chad Dean of Caroline County Part & Present and Groce family historian Mrs. Charlene Gould for taking time to speak with ABC 47 a couple weeks back.

To view this evening’s feature to air at 6:15 PM please tune into ABC 47 on your local televisions, on their website or via their Facebook page.

We look forward to following up with several institutions and individuals locally and across the Bay to continue to advance and recognize the history of Mr. Groce.

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VIDEO: Where is the interpretative sign for Frederick Douglass at Harpers Ferry National Historic Park & Storer College? (part 2)

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VIDEO: Where is the interpretative sign for Frederick Douglass at Harpers Ferry National Historic Park & Storer College? (part 1)

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VIDEO: J. R. Clifford and the Carrie Williams Case by Tom Rodd


Link to Mr. Rodd’s book on the Carrie Williams case -> HERE

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William Augustine Willyams, “asst. libr, Catholic univ” in 1892 DC City Directory. Where is the scholastic love & recognition?


Source:

1892 Boyd’s City Directory of Washington, D.C., p. 1.000

Editor’s Note:

special h/t to Mr. Matt Redman of the Eastern Shore for discovering Mr. Willyams as a teacher in Baltimore of Mr. George Adams of Centreville, Maryland (Queen Anne’s County) and Mr. Nate Tinner-Williams of Black Catholic Messenger for his work to uplift the history and recognition of Mr. Willyams inside and outside of the Catholic Church.

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